The Weekly Teaching Note

From the Cal Poly Pomona Faculty Center for Professional Development

Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy

Posted by weeklyteachingnote on February 17, 2009

Since the initial development of Bloom’s Taxonomy of learning objectives, a great deal of new understanding has occurred in the realm of educational psychology. Some scholars in the field felt it was time to revise Bloom’s classic taxonomy of cognitive processes.

The taxonomy was revised to include 6 new names to describe the levels of cognitive processing:

  • Remember : The learner retrieves factual information .  A sample performance statement could be – “Recall the importance of subject X.”
  • Understand : The learner develops meaning from presented information .  For example, “Compare subject X with subject Y.”
  • Apply : The learner implements the material in a particular manner .  For example, “Show how subject X can be used in this setting.”
  • Analyze : The learner breaks the subject matter down into parts and interpret how these parts are interrelated .  For example, “Distinguish between subject X and subject Y as they relate to concept A.”
  • Evaluate : The learner makes a judgment based upon certain criteria or standards .  For example, “Determine whether or not the conclusion of person B is appropriate given the discussion held in class.”
  • Create : The learner places the parts of the subject matter into a different form. For example, “Based upon ideas we have discussed in class, generate a new way to look at subject X”

and to include a knowledge dimension that includes four types:

  • Factual Knowledge : This type of knowledge focuses upon basic information required to show proficiency with a specific discipline .  Examples include vocabulary, symbols, and formulas.
  • Conceptual Knowledge : This type of knowledge focuses upon the connections of the basic information within a larger structure . Examples include theoretical ideas and organization of ideas into timelines or categories.
  • Procedural Knowledge : This type of knowledge focuses upon the implementation, or putting into action, the material that has been learned .  Examples include subject-specific skills and techniques.
  • Metacognitive Knowledge : This type of knowledge focuses upon a broad understanding of cognition, as well as one’s own cognitive processes . Examples include how to outline or categorize information in a manner that works best for the learner, or awareness of the learner’s strengths and weaknesses for writing reports and presenting information to the class.

The cognitive process dimension and the knowledge dimension are arranged in a grid pattern — students can be asked to develop ideas that would combine, say, Evaluate from the cognitive process dimension with Procedural knowledge from the knowledge dimension.  The cognitive processes focus on the actions to be done while the knowledge dimension focuses on the objectives to be accomplished.

Reference:

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D.R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives . New York: Longman.

Contributed by:

Lorin W. Anderson and David R. Krathwohl
Teaching & Academic Support Center (TASC)
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky
(859) 257-2987 ext. 256 www.uky.edu/TASC/

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